Lesson 08 Articles


There are three articles: A, An, The. (They are also called determiners)
A or An is called the Indefinite Article, because it is used when we do not speak of any particular/definite person or thing:
He met a boy in the park.
It is an orange.
The is called the Definite Article, because it is used when we speak of some particular/definite person or thing:
This is the shirt that I bought yesterday.
He is the doctor who treated my brother.

Use of ‘A’

1. Words beginning with the sound of a consonant: a book, a player, a table.
2. Vowels having the sound of ‘yu’: a European, a useful thing, a utensil.
3. ‘O’ when it is sounded as ‘wa’: a one-rupee note, a one-way traffic.

Use of ‘An’

1. Words beginning with a vowel sound: an apple, an umbrella, an hour, an honest girl, an honourable person.
2. Abbreviations starting with a vowel sound: an M.A., an MLA

Use of ‘The’

When we refer to some particular person or thing; as ,
This is the shirt I bought yesterday.
Call the boy sitting in the corner.
The shawls of Kashmir are famous.

2. When a singular Noun is used to indicate a whole class:
The elephant is a big animal
The dog is a faithful animal.

3. With superlative degree:
This is the best book on this subject.
He is the richest person of our colony.

4. With an adverb in such sentences:
The higher we climb the cooler it is.

5. Before rivers, range of mountains, group of islands, oceans, gulfs and bays:
The Ganga, the Jamuna, the Himalayas, the Andaman islands, the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Persian Gulf.

6. With the name of directions, planets etc:
The east, the west, the sky, the sun, the moon

7. Before the names of well-known books, newspapers, public buildings, institutions, associations, etc.:
The Gita, the Ramayana, the Times of India, the Taj Mahal, the University of Delhi, the Golden Temple, the United Nations.

8. Before the names of peoples (nations), races and Adjectives formed from Proper Nouns, Common Nouns, etc:
The English, the Hindus, the Sikhs, the Indians, the Japanese, the rich, the poor, the needy

9. With part of a body:
He was struck on the head.

10. With a proper noun being used as a common noun:
Kashmir is the Switzerland of India.
He is the Mahatma Gandhi/Edison of our college.

11. Countries/states named due to geographical divisions:
the U.S.A., the U.K., the U.P., the Madhya Pradesh

12. Miscellaneous uses:
This is the same book.
All the boys went on picnic.
He ate the whole meal.
Have you read about the French Revolution?
He met the prime minister of India yesterday.
They want to join the military service.
Who is the principal of your school?
He was the first man to reach there.
Has she joined the Congress?

Repetition of Article

A. Compare the two sentences:
(i) She had a red and white saree.
(ii) She had a red and a white saree.
The first sentence means that he had only one saree which was partly red and white.
The second sentence means that he had two sarees, one red and other black.
(i) The Principal and Manager was present there.
(ii) The Principal and the Manager were present there.

The first sentence shows that only one person who was both Principal and Manager was present there.
The second sentence shows that two persons, one Princ


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